A corn is a circumscribed hyperkeratotic lesion with a central conical core of keratin that causes pain and inflammation. The conical core in a corn, which is a thickening of the stratum corneum, is a protective response to the mechanical trauma. This central core distinguishes the corn from the callus. Corns are divided into two subtypes: the hard corn (heloma durum) and the soft corn (heloma molle).
Corns and calluses develop when normal skin activity is over-stimulated resulting in a thickening layer of skin. This over-stimulation can result from congenital, hormonal, occupational & infective factors. A callous is a diffuse area of thickened skin, were as a corn is an area of a callous that have become moulded into a nucleus.
Prevention & Treatment : It is important to wear appropriate footwear, i.e. supportive shoes with wide toes and low heels. A pumice stone is a good way to rid of hard skin on the foot in addition to a daily moisturising routine to soften skin and help it retain elasticity, especially in the elder, gel corn pads or Corn Cushions helps to relieve painful corns and calluses. Metatarsal padding for the ball of the foot also helps the foot to manage daily stress and friction.
If you are experiencing a painful sensation where you feel like you are walking on stones, consult a Chiropodist/Podiatrist who will advise you on how to treat the problem. A Chiropodist/Podiatrist will treat the problem by removing hard skin, applying a metatarsal pad to the ball of the foot or fitting an orthotic (corrective insole) to assist the foot in redistributing pressure.
- Wear wide toed, low-heeled shoes.
- Use a pumice stone.
- Moisturise the foot daily.
- Use padding for the ball of the foot.
- See Podiatrist/Chiropodist for advice.
Shoulder Immobilizer Brace : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of shoulder stabilizer muscle activity using the contraction of the finger flexor muscle. We divided the study subjects into a grasp group and a non-grasp group. The shoulder muscle activities of both the grasp group and the non-grasp group were measured by electromyography. Both the grasp group that used the contraction of the finger flexor muscle and the non-grasp group that did not use the contraction of the finger flexor muscle showed a state where Shoulder Stabilizer muscle activation increased as the weight borne by them increased. The serratus anterior muscles and rhomboid muscles showed differences between the two groups. Exercises using finger flexor muscle activation is a more effective method for patients who need shoulder stabilizer muscle strengthening exercises because of shoulder stabilizer muscle weakness.
The shoulder is the most mobile joint in the human body. The cost of such versatility is an increased risk of injury. It is important that family physicians understand the anatomy of the shoulder, mechanisms of injury, typical physical and radiologic findings, approach to management of injuries, and indications for referral. Clavicle fractures are among the most common acute shoulder injuries, and more than 80 percent of them can be managed conservatively.